Pentatonic Scales are five-note scales that give you the choice of notes or sounds to make solos from. There are lots of other scales, but the Pentatonic Scales are widely used in Rock, Blues, Country and Jazz music.
There are two common types the Minor Pentatonic and Major Pentatonic Scales. Each creates a different sound.
The Minor Pentatonic Scale gives the Blues sound, kind of sad or edgy–even good for Heavy Metal music. The Major Pentatonic Scale is happier sounding (loosely speaking) and maybe more used in Country music (think of the “Chicken Reel” song), although either can be used in any music genre.
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